The branch of agriculture that deals with the feeding,caring and breeding of domestic animals is called animal husbandry.animal based farming includes cattle,goat,sheep,poultry and fish farming.with the increasing human population in our order to meet these demands,it has become essential to improve the livestoce production.
1) cattle farming:
Cattle farming is done for two purpose: (1) for milk and (2) for drought labour for agricultural work such as tilling,irrigation and carting.indian cattles belong to two different species indicus cow and bubalis bubalis buffalo.
cows are good for providing milk as food.the number of well recognized cow breeds in our country is thirty.they are classified in three categories:
Drought breeds: animals of these breed are strong and stout.they are used for drawing bullock carts,tilling the soil and transportation and are commonly called the beasts of burden.
Dairy breeds: cows of these breeds give more milk but their bullocks are weak which are not useful as beasts of burden.
Dual purpose breeds:cows of these breeds give fairly good amount of milk and bullocks are good for draught work.
buffalo and cow are excellent dairy animals.there are three varieties of indian breeds dairy cows;(1) red sindhi cow (2) shahiwal cow and (3) gir cow
BREEDS OF BUFFALOES
there are 10 breeds of buffaloes in our country.the follownig are the three important breeds that yield more milk
1) murrah: murrah is a very good milker which is the original native of haryana and punjab.the average yield of milk is 1800 to 2000 litres,during its lactation period.
2) mehsana: this buffalo is native of mehsana and vadodara districts of gujarat.it gives 1200 to 2500 litres milk during lactation period.
3) surti: this breeds is a native of kheda and vadodara districts in gujarat.the average yield of milk ranges from 1600 to 1800 litres.
the food requirement of dairy animals are of two types
1) maintenance requirement : the required food is provided to fulfil the physiological activities and for healthy life.
2) milk producing requirement: the food necessary for the production of milk is supplied to milch animal during its lactation period.the feed of cattle includes 1) roughage and 2) concentrates.the roughage consists mainly of natural green plants,fodder and pulse.cereal plants like millet,maize,pearl millet,oat etc.and protein rich plants such as lucerne,green gram,vigna etc.
fish is a valuable and important resource of food,rich in proteins.fish production included the finned true fishe like mullets,bhetki and pearl spots as well as shell fishes such as prawns and mollusks. there are two ways of obtaining fish.one is from natural resources,which is called capture fishing. fishes are aquatic and hence they can be cultured in water.the water source of the fish can be either seawater or fresh water.